Historical Plaques of
Ottawa-Carleton

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PLAQUE #1

Location: University of Ottawa's Tabaret Hall, 550 Cumberland St

UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA

This institution was established in 1848 by Bishop Joseph-Eugene Guigues and placed under the direction of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate. Incorporated by Act of Parliament on May 30, 1849 as the College of Bytown, it occupied a three-storey frame building in the garden of the Episcopal Palace. Renamed "College of Ottawa" in 1861, it received university status five years later, and was decreed a pontifical university by the Pope Leo XIII in 1889. The college, which has occupied its present site since 1856, was destroyed by fire on Dec 2, 1902, but quickly rebuilt. Administrative control of this, Canada's first bilingual university, was transferred in 1965 from the Oblates to a board of governors.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

The next 2 plaques were sent in by Pat & Greg McCabe

PLAQUE #2

Location: The village of Vernon, Ontario, Osgoode Twp.

On this site in 1871, two brothers, Joseph Archibald and John Mungo Campbell built the first Vernon Flour and Sawmill in what was to become Vernon Village. After a fire in 1872, Ellsworth a millwright from Ogdensburg rebuilt the mills. The resulting community contained a frame saw, grist, shingle and carding mills, house, store, stable, and creamery equipment shop. Creamers for cooking and churns were also made. Hugh B. Cameron was one of the first millers. At peak times 20 - 30 men were employed in the mill.

Erected with assistance from the Ministry of
Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #3

Location: The village of Vernon, Osgoode Twp.

ALEXANDER CAMERON RUTHERFORD

1857 - 1941

The first premier of Alberta, Rutherford was born in Osgoode Township of Scottish parents and educated at McGill University. In 1895, after practising law in Ottawa and Kemptville, he moved to Strathcona, near Edmonton. Elected to the territorial assembly seven years later, Rutherford achieved prominence as a deputy speaker of the legislature. When the province of Alberta was created in 1905, he became the first premier, provincial treasurer and minister of education in the first government. Rutherford skillfully established the province's administrative, judicial, and educational framework, but prolonged debate regarding a controversial railway policy precipitated his resignation in 1910. Although retired from politics after 1913, he retained an active interest in educational matters, serving as chancellor of the University of Alberta from 1927 until his death.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

The next plaque was sent in by John D. Reid
"Wiggins was a scientific eccentric who made weather
forecasts using the position of the moon".

PLAQUE #4

Location: Britannia

1892-93

ARBOUR HOUSE

Arbour House was built as a summer home for E. Stone Wiggins, a teacher and amateur meteorologist and his wife, writer Susie Anna Wiggins. The house's exceptional corner tower, shingled gables and irregular plan are typical of the Queen Anne Revival style.

Designated Heritage Property 1994

City of Ottawa


The next plaque was sent in by Keith Presley. The cemetery has been maintained by
generations of the Dale families and in the past few decades
by the Sharkey Family who are direct descendants of the Dales.

PLAQUE #5

Location: Cumberland

DALES CEMETERY
Early records show this cemetery was started in 1836 on farm land purchased for 20 pounds currency from Wm. Dale and his wife Mary Lough Dale who were buried here in 1895 and 1855 respectively.

    A peaceful place of quiet rest,
    with birds sweetly singing,
    from where the souls of all the blest,
    Heavenward are winging.

The next 3 plaques were sent in by John D. Reid

PLAQUE #6

Location: Ottawa

THE NILE VOYAGEURS

1884-85

In 1884 the British Government decided to send a military expedition up the Nile River to relieve Major-General Charles Gordon, who was besieged in Khartoum by Mahdist tribesmen. Appointed to command the relieving force, Viscount Wolseley, who had led the expedition to the Red River in 1870, requested the recruitment of experienced Canadian voyageurs. Almost 400 volunteered, including many superb rivermen, and the largest group came from the Ottawa valley area. Commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Frederick C. Denison, they were largely responsible for the successful navigation of the Nile's difficult cataracts, although sixteen voyageurs died on service. The contingent returned to Canada in 1885.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #7

Location: Ottawa

SIR SANDFORD FLEMING

1827 - 1915

Engineer and an ardent imperialist, Fleming was born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. In 1845 he came to Canada, where he became survey and construction engineer for the Intercontinental Railway (1863 -76) and Canadian Pacific (1871-80). He foresaw the day when the technologies of steam and electricity would make Canada a great nation within the Empire, and to this end advocated the laying of the Pacific cable as a link in the globe-circling imperial network. A man of wide interests, Fleming designed the first Canadian postage stamp, in 1851, and was an early champion of the idea of standard time. He died in Halifax.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #8


Location: Ottawa

WILLIAM FREDERICK KING

1854 - 1916

Born in England, W. F. King was a superb mathematician who promoted the systematic study of astronomy, geodesy and geophysics in this country. Through his initiative, the Dominion observatory in Ottawa, the Geodetic Survey of Canada and the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria were founded. He extended geodetic surveys to western and northern Canada and helped to delineate the Canada-United States boundary. The world longitude network across the Pacific Ocean was completed under his direction. He was President of the Royal Society of Canada in 1911. He died in Ottawa.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

The next plaque was sent in by Terence Quirke

PLAQUE #9

Location: Ottawa

GEORGE McILRAITH BRIDGE

Is so named in honour of

GEORGE McILRAITH, P.C., Q.C.,

Who as Member of Parliament, Cabinet Minister and Senator of Canada, has served faithfully the people of Ottawa-Carleton and helped make the Capital Region worthy of all Canadians.

July 1, 1972


The next plaque was sent in by Brian Rolfe

PLAQUE #10

Location: 1153 Wellington Street in Ottawa, formerly in Hintonburg

HOME CHILDREN
Beginning in 1869, British charitable societies removed children from slums and orphanages in congested industrial cities and brought them to Canada to serve as cheap farm and domestic labour. "Homes" were set up across the country to house the girls and boys until they were placed in service. Monitoring of the children after placement was superficial, leaving them susceptible to mistreatment. Child emigration was discontinued in the 1930's when the Great Depression created a labour surplus in Canada. By then up to 100,000 children had been transported. This building, formerly known as St. George's Home, was one of the many distribution centres in Canada.

The next 5 plaques were sent in by the McRae Family;
Tom, Cathy, Sarah, Daniel, Matthew, Alexander and Nick

PLAQUE #11

Location: in the lobby of the Bytown Museum beside the third lock of the headlocks of the Rideau Canal,
between Parliament Hill and the Chateau Laurier, off Elgin Street, Ottawa

COMMISSARIAT BUILDING 1827
This structure, the oldest existing stone building in Ottawa, was used as a storehouse, office and treasury during the construction of the Rideau Canal (1826-32) under the direction of Lieutenant-Colonel John By, R.E. Its superb masonry and solid construction are typical of the stonework done by Scottish masons along the Rideau Canal and, at a later date, on private homes in eastern Ontario. In 1854, the building was turned over to the Canadian government and, until 1951, was used successively by various departments concerned with the maintenance of the canal.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #12

Location: in front of the former school, 159 Murray Street, Ottawa

L'ÉCOLE GUIGUES AND REGULATION 17
Erected as a school in 1904-05, this building became a centre for minority rights agitation in Ontario early in the twentieth century. In 1912 when the provincial government issued a directive restricting French-language education to the primary grades, heated controversy resulted. Opposition to this directive, commonly called Regulation 17, was widespread and particularly intense in Ottawa. Funds were withheld from the city's separate school board and in 1915, after it had closed the schools under its jurisdiction, the board was replaced by a government-appointed commission. Openly defiant, the disenfranchised board fought back and successfully regained control of l'École Guigues in 1916. In the face of mounting protests, the provincial government reinstated the board and, moderating its policy, finally recognized bilingual schools in 1927.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #13

Location: at the mill, now called Watson's Mill, on Mill Street in Manotick

THE LONG ISLAND MILL
An outstanding example of mill architecture in Ontario, this grist-mill was constructed by Thomas Langrell, an Ottawa contractor, for Moss K. Dickinson (1822-97) and Joseph M. Currier (1820-84), the owners of a nearby sawmill. The Long Island Mill began operation in 1860 with four sets of mill-stones driven by water-powered turbines manufactured in Ottawa. By the autumn of 1862 a woollen-mill had been added to this industrial complex, around which the community of Manotick developed. Dickinson acquired full interest in the mills in 1863 and the family retained ownership of the Long Island Mill until 1929. In 1972 this mill, the adjacent Dickinson House, and the original carriage-shed were purchased and restored by the Rideau Valley Conservation Authority.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #14

Location: on the grounds of the church, Carp Road and McGee Side Road,
about 5 km south of Carp

CHRIST CHURCH 1838
This handsome stone church, in the style of the early Gothic Revival, was built by A. Thomas Christie on land donated by John Cavanagh, one of Huntley township's earliest landholders. Aided by a substantial contribution from Colonel Arthur Lloyd, a veteran of the Napoleonic Wars who had settled in neighbouring March township, the building was completed in 1838. The earliest Anglican settlers were served by missionaries posted in Hull and subsequently in March. The union of the Huntley and March parishes continued until the appointment of the Reverend James Godfrey as Rector of Huntley in 1853. Although the interior has been extensively altered, the building stands as a memorial to the original Anglican settlers.

Erected by the Archeological and Historic Sites Board,
Department of Public Records and Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #15

Location: in Pinhey Point Park, which is at the end of Pinhey Point Road, Kanata

THE HONOURABLE HAMNETT KIRKES PINHEY
1784-1857
A merchant and ship-owner in his native England, Pinhey came to Upper Canada in 1820. For his services as King's messenger during the Napoleonic Wars, he received a 1,000-acre land grant on the Ottawa River. Within a decade he had built up an estate which he named Horaceville after his elder son. In addition to a manor house and barns, it included mills, a store and a church. Pinhey took a leading part in township and district affairs. He was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1847, served as Warden of the Dalhousie District, and as the first Warden of Carleton County. Horaceville remained in family hands until 1959 when it was purchased by the National Capital Commission.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Recreation

PLAQUE #16

Location: On the outside wall of the Canadian War Museum, 330 Sussex Dr., Ottawa

BRIGADIER-GENERAL
ERNEST ALEXANDER CRUIKSHANK 1853 - 1939
A noted authority on Ontario's history, Cruikshank was born in Bertie Township, Welland County, and educated at Upper Canada College. An ensign in the militia in 1877, he retired as a brigadier-general in 1921. Because of his interest in history he was seconded to the Public Archives of Canada in 1908, became Director of the Historical Section, General Staff, in 1918, and in 1919 was chosen first Chairman of the Historic Sites and Mouments Board of Canada. He was a member of the Royal Society of Canada and a President of the Ontario Historical Society. Among his many writings were: "The Story of Butler's Rangers", "James Kirby, His Life in Letters", and the edited volumes of "The Simcoe Papers".

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #17

Location: In the park on the corner of Sussex Dr. & John St., Ottawa

THOMAS McKAY 1792 - 1855
Born in Scotland, McKay emigrated to Canada about 1817 and worked as a mason in Montreal until 1826, when he began building the entrance locks of the Rideau Canal and the first bridge across the Ottawa River joining present-day Ottawa and Hull. In 1829 McKay acquired land where the Rideau River met the Ottawa. Here he laid out the village of New Edinburgh, and established an industrial complex which by 1848 included two-sawmills, a grist-mill, woollen factory and distillery. In 1838 McKay built his residence, Rideau Hall, a two storey stone structure used after 1865 to house Canada's governors-general. Active in municipal and provincial politics, McKay sat on Bytown's first council (1828) represented Russell in the Legislative Assembly (1834-41), and served on the Legislative Council (1841-55).

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #18

Location: At the Journal Towers, Kent St. between Laurier & Slater Sts., Ottawa

PHILIP DANSKEN ROSS 1858 - 1949
Born in Montreal, Ross graduated in 1878 from McGill University and served on newspapers in Montreal and Toronto before becoming, in 1886, managing director and part-owner of the OTTAWA JOURNAL. Within five years he had acquired sole ownership of this newspaper. He was a founder of the Canadian Press and was elected president of the Canadian Daily Newspapers Association in 1920. An outstanding all-round athlete, Ross twice stroked four-oared crews to Dominion championships. A founder of the Ontario Hockey Association, he persuaded Lord Stanley to offer the Stanley Cup for competition. Ross served on the Ottawa City Council (1902-03), as chairman of the Ottawa-Electric Commission (1944-49) and the Ontario Royal Commission on Public Welfare (1930).

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Archives of Ontario

PLAQUE #19

Location: In Victoria Park, at Victoria and Albert Sts., Metcalfe

THE FOUNDING OF OSGOODE TOWNSHIP
Named for William Osgoode, the first Chief Justice of Upper Canada, Osgoode Township was established on lands the British acquired from the Mississaugas in the 1780s. Land for farming and a plentiful supply of white pine and white oak attracted the first non-native settlers, the families of Archibald and Catherine McDonell and William and Ann York, who arrived in 1827. They founded the new communty's first industries and institutions, and they built the first two roads in the Township, converging here at what was Baker's Corners. These roads, the Rideau Canal and railway lines between Osgoode and Bytown (now Ottawa) encouraged further settlement, and the Township was incorporated in 1850. On January 1, 2001, Osgoode Township became part of the City of Ottawa.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #20

Location: Attached to the wall of Rideau Hall, 1 Sussex Dr., Ottawa

RIDEAU HALL
Built in 1839 for Thomas McKay, Rideau Hall was originally an elegant stone villa set in a picturesque landscaped park. In 1865 it was leased as a temporary residence for the Governor General until a suitable house could be erected elsewhere. The planned new residence was never constructed. Instead the old building was expanded and eventually almost engulfed by a series of additions between 1865 and 1914. Today Rideau Hall is the official Government House. As the residence of the Crown's representative in Canada it has been a focus of political and social life in the capital.

Érigé en 1838 pour Thomas McKay, Rideau Hall était une élégante villa de pierre, sise dans un parc pittiresque. En 1865, le gouvernement loua la villa pour y loger le Gouverneuer général jusqu'à la construction d'une résidence permanente. Comme le projet ne vit jamais le jour, on agrandit l'ancienne maison, y ajoutant des annexes entre 1865 et 1914. Rideau Hall est maintenant la résidence officielle de Gouverneur général. En tant que domicile du représentant de la Coutonne au Canada, Rideau Hall est un foyer de vie politique et sociale dans la capitale.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #21

Location: Attached to a large boulder on the walkway to Rideau Hall,
1 Sussex Dr., Ottawa

SIR CHARLES STANLEY MONCK
LORD MONCK
1810 - 1894
An Irish peer and former member of the Palmerston administration, Lord Monck was named Governor General of British North America in 1861. During the American Civil War he laboured to keep hostilities from spreading north to British territory. An early proponent of the desirability of union of the British North American provinces, Monck devoted his energies and the prestige of his office to the cause of Confederation. His appointment was extended to allow him to become the first Governal General of the Dominion of Canada in 1867. He retired to his estates in Ireland the following year.

De noblesse irlandaise, ancien membre du gouvernement britannique, Lord Monck fut noininé Gouverneur général de l'Amérique britannique en 1861. Pendant le guerre de Sécession américaine, il veilla à ce que les hostilités ne débordent pas sur le territoire britannique. Convaincu des lors qu'il y aurait avantage à unir les provinces britanniques de l'Amérique du Nord, il consacra son énergie et le prestige de sa fonction à promouvoir la cause de la Confédération. Son mandat ayant été prolongé à cette fin, 1l devint le premier Gouverneur général du Canada en 1867. L'année suivante, il se retira en Irlande.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #22

Location: Attached to a large boulder on the walkway to Rideau Hall,
1 Sussex Dr., Ottawa

LADY ABERDEEN
(1857 - 1939)
Raised in Scotland, 1877 Ishbel Maria Marjoribanks married Lord Aberdeen, who was Governor General of Canada from 1893 to 1898. A formidable and energetic person, she devoted her life to promoting social causes and served for years as president of the International Council of Women. In Canada she founded the National Council of Women, helped establish the Victorian Order of Nurses and headed the Aberdeen Association, which distributed literature to settlers. Lady Aberdeen later organized the Red Cross Society of Scotland and the Women's National Association of Ireland. She died at Aberdeen, Scotland.

Ishbel Maria Marjoribanks épouse, en 1877, Lord Aberdeen, Gouverneur général du Canada de 1893 à 1898 Femme énergique et remarquable, Lady Aberdeen consacre sa vie aux oeuvres sociales et demeure longtemps présidente du Conseil international des femmes Au Canada elle fonde le Conseil national des femmes du Canada, conttibue à établir les Infirnricres de l'Ordre de Victoria et dirige l'Aberdeen Association qui distribuair des livres aux colons. Plus tard elle organise Ia Red Cross Society of Scotland et la Women's National Association of Ireland. Elle meutt à Aberdeen en Ecosse.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #23

Location: 62 Sussex Dr., Ottawa


New Edinburgh's                             Première école de
First School                                New Edinburgh

This stone building was erected c. 1837,    Dans ce bâtiment de pierre construit
James Fraser taught reanding and            vers 1837, James Fraser enseigna, du
elocution, French, writing, arithmetic,     25 juin 1838 jusque vers 1843, la lecture,
English grammar and geography in            la diction, le français, l'ecriture,
this school from June 25, 1838 until        l'arithmetique, la grammaire anglaise
about 1843 to the children of the little    et la géographie aux enfants de la
industrial community of New Edinburgh.      petite collectivié industrielle de
The building reverted to a working-mans     New Edinburgh. En 1844 le bâtiment servit
double residence in 1844. It was acquired   à nouveau de logement pour les travailleurs.
by the National Capital Commission in       Acheté par la Commission de la Capitale
1959 and subsequently renovated.            nationale en 1959, il a été renové depuis.


National Capital      Commission
Commission            de la Capitale natîonale                         Canada

PLAQUE #24

Location: In Richmond, at the fairgrounds on Perth Street (Road 10),
just west of Huntley Road (Road 5), Ottawa

RICHMOND MILITARY SETTLEMENT
1818
In August, 1818, some thirty disbanded veterans of the 99th Regiment, led by Captain G.T. Burke, arrived in newly surveyed Goulbourn Township. These formed the advanced party of a military settlement planned and supported by the quartermaster-general's department. Here they laid out a town site named after the governor general, the Duke of Richmond. Storehouses were built, settlers' cabins erected and the colonists provided with farm implements and rations. Under the general supervision of Lieutenant-Colonel Francis Cockburn, about 400 heads of families, including some civilians, were established in the settlement by the end of 1818, thus forming the first large community within the present Carleton County.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #25

Location: In Richmond, on the NW corner of Fowler Street and York Street,
4 blocks south of Perth Street (Road 10), Ottawa

ST. JOHN'S ANGLICAN CHURCH
1823
On this site stood the first church to be commenced in what is now Carleton County. Among the pioneers who formed the Richmond Military Settlement in 1818 were many Anglicans, and in 1822 the Rev. John Byrne was appointed to minister the members of that communion in Richmond and March. The original St. John's Church, a frame and stone structure was begun in 1823, and the following year Byrne established residence in Richmond, where he served until his death in 1828. He was succeeded in 1828 by the Rev. Robert Short through whose efforts the church was completed by 1830. The present St. John's was built to replace the first church in 1859-60.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

The next plaque was sent in by Dave McBride

PLAQUE #26

Location: Found at an ancient (some believe predates confederation) buriel site north of the Dwyer Hill Road
east of the Richmond Road near where the railway tracks cross. It is badly overgrown
and has not been tended to in many years. It is believed that most of the plots
are of the Purdy family who were prominent in the area at one time.

DWYER HILL PIONEER
ROMAN CATHOLIC BURIAL GROUND
This, the oldest known cemetery in Marlborough Township, served the community of Irish Catholics around Dwyer Hill and Richmond until circa 1867. Due to the nature of the graves, it is unique in the township and rare in Ontario. Shallow excavations covered with stones in a low cairn were marked by planks inscribed with paint. The spartan character of the cemetery reflects the hardships of life for early settlers.

Township of Rideau Heritage Property

PLAQUE #27

Location: At the Government of Canada's Communications Research Centre on Carling Avenue east of March Road (Road 49), Ottawa

THE ALOUETTE 1
SATELLITE PROGRAMME
Alouette 1 was launched on September 29, 1962, making Canada the third country in the world to design and build a satellite. The data gathered during its ten-year lifespan greatly extended our knowledge of the ionosphere and the Earth's upper atmosphere, and validated the innovative design and stringent testing used in its development. Conceived by a team of engineers and scientists at the Defence Research Telecommunications Establishment, Alouette 1 was a scientific success and an engineering feat that enabled the space programme to prosper and contributed to the emergence of a Canadian space industry.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #28

Location: At the Beechwood National Memorial Centre in Beechwood Cemetery
off Beechwood Avenue east of Vanier Parkway north of Montreal Road, Ottawa

BEECHWOOD CEMETERY
This cemetery is a very good example of the type of rural cemetery that emerged in the United States and Canada in the 19th century. Developed from 1873 on rolling terrain bordered by a forest, Beechwood is characterized by winding roads, picturesque vistas and numerous wooded groves, as well as by the wide variety of trees, shrubs and ornamental plants. Being also the site of the National Military Cemetery of the Canadian Forces, Beechwood, with its beautiful setting and many monuments of considerable artistic and historical interest, invites contemplation and remembrance.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #29

Location: At the end of Cabot St. off Pleasant Pk. Rd. off Riverside Dr. just north of Bank St., Ottawa

THE BILLINGS HOUSE
Park Hill was built by Braddish Billings, a pioneer in local lumbering and agriculture. Born in Massachusetts in 1783, he was the first settler of Gloucester Township in 1812, his homestead forming the nucleus of Billings Bridge. In symmetry and classical detail, Park Hill draws on New England architecture of the Georgian period. The original house was built in 1828 but the north wing, which may have been moved intact from an earlier Billings home, was added in 1831. Later, a verandah was removed and the dormers and south wing added. Billings died in 1864 at Park Hill, which was occupied by his descendants until 1975.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #30

Location: On the north side of Wellington Street across from Metcalfe Street, Ottawa

CANADA'S CAPITAL
After the union of the two Canadas in 1841, Kingston, Montréal, Toronto, and Québec were in succession the seat of government. During the 1850's these cities contended for designation as the permanent capital of Canada. When called upon in 1857, Queen Victoria resolved the issue by choosing Ottawa. In 1867, the Fathers of Confederation reaffirmed the choice and Ottawa became the capital of the new Dominion of Canada.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #31

Location: At the Defence of Hong Kong Memorial Wall on the southeast corner
of Sussex Drive and King Edward Avenue, Ottawa

THE CANADIAN ROLE IN THE
DEFENCE OF HONG KONG
In late 1941, 1,975 Canadians arrived in Hong Kong to reinforce the garrison. They fought with courage and determination against overwhelming odds after the Japanese attacked on December 8. Many distinguished themselves under fire, including Company Sergeant-Major John Robert Osborn, who won Canada's first Victoria Cross of the Second World War. During the seventeen-day battle, 290 men died. After the surrender, 267 more perished during long years of harsh captivity. The Canadians' role in the defence of Hong Kong stands as an eloquent expression of their lasting honour.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #32

Location: On the University campus on University Road just east of Colonel By Drive

CARLETON UNIVERSITY
Founded by the Ottawa Association for the Advancement of Learning to meet the educational needs of war-time Ottawa, this non-denominational college was opened in 1942. In the beginning it was housed in scattered rented quarters and offered only evening courses in introductory university subjects. However under the leadership of its first president, Dr. Henry Marshall Tory, Carleton College soon inaugurated day classes for veterans, established a Faculty of Arts and Science, and obtained a permanent home. in 1952, six years after granting its first degrees in journalism and public administration, the college received a provincial charter and in 1957 it became Carleton University. Since moving to this campus in 1959, Carleton has increased the number of its undergraduate faculties and expanded its graduate programs.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #33

Location: In a picnic area across a small footbridge to the left of a parking lot at the blue P24 sign
3.8 km from Highway 417 via Boundary Road (Road 41) and west on Russell Road (Road 26)

CARLSBAD SPRINGS
In the 1860s, local innkeeper Daniel Eastman offered water from the natural mineral springs in this area for drinking and bathing. His inn was followed by larger hotels where guests were invited to "take the waters" for ailments such as rheumatism, nervousness, and digestive disorders. Eastman's Springs was soon a fashionable meeting place for Ottawa society. Also known as Cathartic, it became Carlsbad Springs by the early twentieth century when the Boyd family, owners of the largest hotel, named their establishment after a famous European spa. By supplementing spa therapy with social and recreational activities, the resort's four hotels remained popular until the Second World War. This springhouse was part of the Boyd spa complex.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #34

Location: At the "Diefenbunker" on Carp Rd. (Road 5) 2.5 km north of March Rd. (Road 49), Ottawa

THE CENTRAL EMERGENCY GOVERNMENT HEADQUARTERS
Irreverently known as the "Diefenbunker," this structure is a powerful symbol of Canada's response to the Cold War. Designed in the 1950s to withstand all but a direct hit by a nuclear weapon, it was intended to shelter key political and military personnel during a nuclear attack. Fortunately, it never served its intended purpose, although the Diefenbaker government made plans to retreat to its protection during the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. The bunker functioned as the hub of a communications network and civil defence system until it closed in 1994.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #35

Location: On the northeast corner of the National Capital Commission Scenic Driveway
and Maple Drive just west of Prince of Wales Drive, Ottawa

CENTRAL EXPERIMENTAL FARM
A rare example of a farm within a city, this outstanding cultural landscape brings together two strong 19th century interests: agricultural improvement and picturesque design. Established by the federal government in 1886, the Farm has supported Canadian agriculture by undertaking critical scientific research and by developing and demonstrating good farming methods. Its 426 hectares are organized into three distinct areas: a central core of science and administration buildings, an arboretum and ornamental gardens, and the experimental fields and plots. The Main Dairy Barn with its attached stables laid out around a barnyard, was at the heart of the model farm. The individual parts of the landscape are orchestrated into an organic whole intended to enhance nature's inherent beauty. Adopting picturesque features of a British country estate, the Farm combines large stretches of lawn and field, winding paths and pleasing water vistas. This site is a symbol of the critical role agriculture has played in shaping Canada.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #36

Location: On the south side of the National Capital Commission Scenic Driveway
a block west of Prince of Wales Drive, Ottawa

CENTRAL EXPERIMENTAL FARM
Canada's experimental farms system was begun in 1886 by a federal government eager to introduce profitable new methods and products. It sought thereby to broaden Canada's agricultural frontiers, especially in the still sparsely settled North-West. Acquired in 1886, this Central Experimental Farm was the first of the original five. As the research headquarters of a vast network of experimental stations, it continues to specialize in food and agricultural research projects. In the heart of the city, it exhibits the progress in plant, livestock and agricultural technology.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #37

Location: On the east side of Richmond Road 3.7 km east and north of Eagleson Road
(Road 49) north of Cambrian Road, street #6346, Ottawa

CHARLES LENNOX
4th DUKE OF RICHMOND AND LENNOX (1764-1819)
Charles Lennox was appointed Commander-in-Chief of all the British North American colonies and Governor-in-Chief of Lower Canada in May 1818. He received a mandate to improve the colonies' defences and inland navigation system. Lennox recommended the strengthening of the fortifications at Québec City and the building of a fort, later named in his honour, on Île aux Noix and also promoted canal construction on the Ottawa River. His sudden death near here only a year after his appointment was lamented in both Canada and Britain.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #38

Location: On Rideau Street at the hotel on the wall to the left of the main entrance, Ottawa

CHÂTEAU LAURIER
Designed by the architectural firm of Ross and MacFarlane this hotel was built between 1908 and 1912 and enlarged in the 1920s. It was the first in a chain of Château style hotels constructed by the Grand Trunk Railway (later incorporated into the Canadian National Railways), to encourage tourists to travel its routes. Distinguished by its crisp facades and steep, copper roofs, the hotel's picturesque appearance captures the romance of travelling by train. The Châteauesque rooflines of several federal government buildings in Ottawa were inspired by the commanding presence of this hotel.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #39

Location: In the lobby of the Canadian Museum of Nature at McLeod and Metcalfe streets, Ottawa

DIAMOND JENNESS
1886-1969
Diamond Jenness was born in New Zealand and educated there and at Oxford. After field work in New Guinea he joined the 1913 Canadian Arctic Expedition, embarking on a career that made him the dean of Canadian anthropologists. Although known for his work on the Copper Eskimos and his identification of the Dorset culture, he did field studies of many other native groups, and his Indians of Canada (1931) was long considered a definitive work. Jenness retired in 1947 after a distinguished career with the National Museum and the Geographical Board, but continued writing for two decades.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #40

Location: At 140 Sussex Drive, just east of the Macdonald Cartier Bridge, Ottawa

EARNSCLIFFE
This was the home of the Right Honourable Sir John A. Macdonald, P.C., G.C.B., M.P., Chief Architect of Confederation. Sir John was the first Prime Minister of the Dominion of Canada and headed the government from 1867 to 1873 and from 1878 to 1891. This house was built in 1855-57 by John MacKinnon and rented by Sir John in 1870-71 and in 1882. He bought it in 1883 and lived here until his death on June 6, 1891

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #41

Location: In the lobby of the Canadian Museum of Nature at McLeod and Metcalfe streets, Ottawa

EDWARD SAPIR
1884-1939
Born in Germany and raised and educated in the United States, Sapir came to Ottawa in 1910 to head the Division of Anthropology of the Geological Survey of Canada. This division later became the National Museum of Man. During his 15 years at the Museum he furthered the study of Canada's indigenous peoples, and contributed significantly to the understanding and classification of their languages, as well as building a national ethnographic collection. His interests included linguistics, ethnology, psychology and literature. He left an international intellectual legacy which endures to the present.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #42

Location: On the north side of Bruyere Street half a block east of Sussex Drive, Ottawa

ÉLISABETH BRUYÈRE
1818-1876
In the 1840s, Bytown (Ottawa) was growing timber-trade village with a substantial French-Canadian population but no Catholic schools and few social services. In February of 1845 the Sisters of Charity of Montreal (Grey Nuns) sent four nuns here. Led by Élisabeth Bruyère, a devout, well-educated young woman, the sisters quickly established a bilingual school for girls, a hospital, and an orphanage. They helped the poor, the elderly and the sick, including hundreds of of immigrants stricken by the typhus epidemics of 1847-48. By the time of Élisabeth Bruyère's death the Sisters of Charity of Ottawa had founded key local institutions and had extended their services to sixteen other communities in Canada and the U.S.

Ontario Heritage Foundation, Ministry of Culture, Tourisim and Recreation

PLAQUE #43

Location: On the wall of the building on the NE corner of Sussex Dr. and George St., Ottawa

FORMER GEOLOGICAL SURVEY
OF CANADA BUILDING
This mid-19th century hotel was remodeled in 1881 as the first Ottawa home of the Geological Survey of Canada. The Survey, established in 1842 to map the country's natural resources, became a federal department in 1877 and was soon moved from Montréal to Ottawa. The discoveries of its scientists were presented to scholars, the mining industry and the public through publications, lectures and exhibitions. The Survey's celebrated museum of natural and human history, which was located in this building until 1911, provided the foundation for Canada's national museums.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #44

Location: In Dundonald Park near the corner of Somerset Street West and Lyon Street North, Ottawa

THE GOUZENKO AFFAIR
1945-1946
The Gouzenko Affair brought the realities of the emerging Cold War to the attention of the Canadian public. On September 5, 1945, cipher officer Igor Gouzenko left the Soviet Embassy with more than 100 documents which exposed the existence of a Soviet spy ring in Canada with links to others in the United States and Great Britain. His allegations gave rise to the creation in 1946 of a Royal Commission of Inquiry known as the Kellock-Taschereau Commission. Its confirmation of the country's vulnerability convinced the federal government to strengthen Canada's national security system.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #45

Location: On the northwest corner of Metcalfe and MacLaren Streets, Ottawa

JOHN R. BOOTH RESIDENCE
This refined and elegant Queen Anne Revival house is as impressive now as when it was built in 1909 for lumber baron John R. Booth. Hallmark features of this style, popular from the 1880s to the 1910s, are displayed on the two main façades of the house. Stylistic elements inspired by late medieval sources include the elaborate shaped gables, ornate stone moulding and the roof's intersecting ridges. Architect John W. H. Watts enhanced the design by adding a square corner tower surrounded by finely sculpted finials to create a house of baronial grandeur.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #46

Location: On the northeast corner of Laurier Avenue East and Chapel Street, Ottawa

LAURIER HOUSE
HOME OF TWO PRIME
MINISTERS OF CANADA
Erected in 1878, this house was purchased in 1897 by the Right Honourable Sir Wilfrid Laurier who occupied it until his death in 1919. Later it was bequeathed by Lady Laurier to the Right Honourable William Lyon Mackenzie King, whose residence it was from 1923 to 1950. He in turn bequeathed it to the nation.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #47

Location: On the north side of Queen Elizabeth Drive just east of Preston Street, Ottawa

THE LIBERATION OF THE
NETHERLANDS
Canada brought liberty and life to the Netherlands at the end of the Second World War. Between October 1944 and May 1945, with fierce fighting and heavy loss of life, the Canadian military opened the Scheldt estuary and the port of Antwerp to Allied supplies, cleared much of the country of the enemy, and fed a Dutch people left starving by the Nazi occupiers. On May 5, 1945, in Wageningen, the Germans surrendered to Canadian Lieutenant-General Charles Foulkes and H.R.H. Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands, commander of the Dutch armed forces. The bonds of friendship forged between Canada and the Netherlands stand strong to this day.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #48

Location: In the lobby of the Canadian Museum of Nature at McLeod and Metcalfe streets, Ottawa

MEETINGS OF PARLIAMENT
After the burning of the Parliament Buildings on the night of 3rd February, 1916, the House of Commons assembled in this building on the 4th and the Senate on the 8th February. Parliament met here for the last time on 10th November, 1919, and assembled for the first time in the rebuilt Parliament Buildings on 26th February, 1920.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #49

Location: On the east side of Cumberland St. between Wilbrod St. and Laurier Ave. E., Ottawa

THE MISSIONARY OBLATES
OF MARY IMMACULATE
Arriving in Canada from France in 1841, the Missionary Oblates of Mary Immaculate have ministered from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and in the far North. "Missionaries to the Poor", they followed the explorers and settled in the remote outposts of the colonies and in the villages of the aboriginal peoples whose languages they learned and customs they studied. The Oblates established parishes adapted to the culture of the people and set up educational institutions where instruction is offered in Canada's two official languages. Their works have made a significant contribution to Canadian ethnography.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #50

Location: On the wall outside the Box Office of the National Arts Centre
Elgin Street at Confederation Square, Ottawa

NATIONAL ARTS CENTRE
Designed by Fred Lebensold, the National Arts Centre (NAC) opened in 1969, offering state-of-the-art performing spaces and technology in its main venues, especially Southam Hall. Its acoustics and overall design, including its integration into the urban setting, dramatic succession of interior spaces, and incorporation of contemporary works of art, make it an outstanding performing arts centre. Hailed as an important national institution by former Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson, the NAC exemplifies the positive impact of federal support on the performing arts in the second half of the 20th century.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #51

Location: In the Lester B. Pearson Building at 125 Sussex Drive on
the ground floor near the auditorium, Ottawa

OSCAR DOUGLAS SKELTON
1878-1941
Born in Orangeville, Ontario Skelton attended Queen's University and was a professor there from 1907 until 1924, publishing in that time many books and articles on Canadian history, economics and politics. He left Queen's to join the young Department of External Affairs which he organized on an enduring basis, thereby making his most significant contribution to Canada. Skelton advised three prime ministers, Meighen, King and Bennett, on foreign policy, advocating an independent Canadian position distinct from that of Britain.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #52

Location: On the NE corner of Elgin and Lisgar Sts. just inside the Elgin St. archway, Ottawa

OTTAWA TEACHERS' COLLEGE
The Ottawa Teachers' College, or Normal School, designed by the architect W. R. Strickland and built in 1875 by J. Forin, was the second institution of its type to be established in Ontario. The rear wing was added in 1879 to house a model school. The College continued to train teachers for Ontario until 1974. While the general massing of forms, with central and side pavilions, follows the 19th century academic tradition, the use of disparate architectural details including the pointed Gothic window, semi-circular Italianate windows, Romanesque columns and Second Empire roof, reflects the spirit of eclecticism.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #53

Location: At the entrance to the Peace Tower on Parliament Hill, Ottawa

THE PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS
In 1859 the province of Canada began to erect its Parliament buildings. The architectural competition was won by Fuller & Jones for the legislative building and by Stent & Laver for the east and west blocks, housing the departmental offices. The chosen style was a robust Gothic Revival featuring rugged masonry, pointed openings, carved beasts and buttresses. First occupied in 1865, the complex housed the new Dominion government 18 months later. In 1916 fire razed the main block, though the exquisite library survived. The present centre block was designed by John A. Pearson and J. O. Marchand in an austere version of the Gothic style.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #54

Location: On the west side of Parliament Hill under a flagpole near the Parliament buildings, Ottawa

PUBLIC GROUNDS OF THE
PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS
In 1873 the Department of Public Works contracted with New York landscape architect Calvert Vaux to design a plan for the public grounds of Parliament Hill. Superseding a design by the English sculptor Marshall Wood, Vaux's design was implemented in 1873-75. A terrace connecting the access roadways integrated the dominating Parliament buildings with the departmental buildings. Small geometric flower beds, diagonal walks and a central fountain, long since removed, ornamented the lawn. While changes in planting have altered the effect of Vaux's design, its major features are clearly discernible.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #55

Location: At 601 Booth St., between Carling Ave. and The Queensway (Highway 417), Ottawa

ROBERT BELL
1841-1917
Born near Toronto, Bell began a long career with the Geological Society of Canada as a summer student when he was only 15. In 1867, after university studies and a period of teaching at Queen's, he joined the Survey on a full-time basis and remained until 1908. During this time he became one of Canada's leading explorers, conducting extensive surveys in northern Canada, particularly in the Canadian Shield, from which he produced original maps and reports on a wide variety of subjects. He was a founding member of the Royal Society of Canada and from 1901 to 1906 served as acting director of the Geological Society.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #56

Location: On the west side of Sussex Drive, across from Bruyere Street, Ottawa

THE ROYAL CANADIAN MINT
Constructed in 1905-1908 to house a branch of the British Royal Mint, this building was one of several designed in the late gothic style by the Department of Public Works in the first part of this century. The building combines the function of a mint (producing coins and medals) with that of a refinery for gold produced by Canadian mines. As a royal mint it also produced imperial gold sovereigns which were a basis of currency. The institution came under the jurisdiction of the Government of Canada in 1931 and was re-named the Royal Canadian Mint.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #57

Location: At the statue of Champlain in Major's Hill Park on the north side of Alexandra Bridge, Ottawa

SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN
(died in 1635)
The "Father of New France", Champlain was at the heart of the French venture in North America from 1603 to 1635. Under the leadership of Pierre Dugua de Mons, he helped colonize Acadia and, in 1608, founded a settlement at Québec that became the centre of the colony. He formed important alliances with Aboriginal peoples and expanded the French sphere of influence, travelling up the Ottawa River and as far west as the Great Lakes. Champlain explored and mapped large areas of the continent, and in his travel journals left an invaluable record of his era for future generations.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #58

Location: In Major's Hill Park near the Alexandra Bridge, Ottawa

SIR EDMUND WALKER HEAD
1805-1868
In 1848, Sir Edmund Walker Head was the first civilian appointed lieutenant governor of New Brunswick and presided over the introduction of responsible government to the colony. He ably administered New Brunswick affairs until he became governor general of British North America in 1854. In this post he influenced Queen Victoria's choice of Ottawa as the capital of the Province of Canada. Following his appointment as governor general he became a strong champion of Confederation, a cause he had been advocating for some years. He returned to his native England in 1861.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #59

Location: On Victoria Island east of the Portage Bridge, Ottawa

THOMAS LEOPOLD "CARBIDE" WILLSON
1860-1915
Born in Oxford County, Upper Canada, and largely self-educated, Willson became a noted inventor in fields ranging from the generation of electricity, through electro-chemistry and metallurgy, to production of fertilizers. His international reputation and considerable fortune derived from the discovery, in 1892, of a method to mass produce calcium carbide as was done in this building. Acetylene, generated from this compound, was used both as an illuminant and a source for other industrial hydrocarbons. Willson's discovery thus laid a basis for much of the early twentieth century's chemical industry.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #60

Location: At the east end of Fleet St., east off Booth Ave. south of the Ottawa River Parkway, Ottawa

THOMAS COLTRIN KEEFER
1821-1915
Born in Thorold, Upper Canada, Keefer began his career as an engineer working for the Erie and Welland Canals. He first gained prominence in 1850 through the Philosophy of Railways, an eloquent and persuasive essay promoting railway development. This gave him wide influence during the railway building era, although he built no lines himself. His public works, particularly the Hamilton, Montréal and Ottawa waterworks, established his reputation as a hydraulics engineer throughout the continent and abroad. He was a founding member and first president of the Canadian Society of Civil Engineers. He died in Ottawa.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #61

Location: On the south side of Sparks Street Mall at street number 136
about half-way between Metcalfe and O'Connor streets, Ottawa

THOMAS D'ARCY McGEE
1825-1868
Journalist, poet, Irish patriot, Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation, McGee was born in Ireland, where he was involved in nationalist politics. Forced to flee to America in 1848, he worked for several years in the United States before settling in Montreal in 1857. In 1858 he was first elected to the legislature for Montréal West. An eloquent orator in support of Confederation, McGee attended the Charlottetown and Québec Conferences, and later represented Montréal West in the House of Commons until felled near this site by an assassin's bullet on April 7, 1868.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #62

Location: On a walkway on the University grounds just south of Laurier Avenue East,
west of Cumberland Street, Ottawa

UNIVERSITY OF OTTAWA
Founded in 1848 as the College of Bytown by Bishop Joseph-Bruno Guigues, the University of Ottawa is the oldest and largest bilingual post-secondary institution in Canada. Under the direction of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate until 1965, it serves as a meeting ground for two of the most prominent intellectual and scientific traditions of the Western World. The University has always maintained special ties with Canada's Francophone population, most notably in the province of Ontario. Located in the heart of the nation's capital, the University of Ottawa illustrates Canada's commitment to diversity and mutual respect.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #63

Location: On the SE corner of Lyon Street North and Wellington Street, Ottawa

VETERANS CHARTER
A programme of innovative social legislation, known collectively as the Veterans Charter, provided an unprecedented level of benefits to those who served in the Second World War. Advanced by the Canadian government, the Charter eased the transition from military to civilian life. It offered over a million ex-service men and women the opportunity to obtain an education, re-enter the work force, build homes, buy land and start businesses. The Charter accelerated economic expansion and led the way in extending social programmes to all Canadians.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #64

Location: In front of the museum, on the south side of McLeod Street between
O'Connor and Metcalfe Streets, Ottawa

VICTORIA MEMORIAL MUSEUM BUILDING
Built between 1905 and 1911, this Tudor Revival structure with its crenellated roofline holds a prominent place in the history of Canadian museums. Originally constructed for the Geological Survey of Canada to feature well-lit exhibition areas, it is Canada's first building designed specifically for national museum collections and research. Over the years, it has been home to no fewer than four national museums devoted to natural history, science and technology, human history and fine art.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #65

Location: Located in the Canada Science and Technology Museum on Lancaster Road
just east of St Laurent Blvd 2.25 km south of The Queensway (Highway 417), Ottawa

THE ZEEP REACTOR
A nuclear chain reaction was first initiated in Canada on September 5, 1945, when the ZEEP reactor went into operation here at Chalk River. Originally part of an effort to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, the reactor was designed by a team of Canadian, British and French scientists and engineers assembled in Montreal and in Ottawa in 1942-43 under the administration of the National Research Council. Named Zero Energy Experimental Pile because it was developed to produce only one watt of heat, the ZEEP reactor was used to provide data for the design of the powerful NRX (National Research Experimental) reactor. In 1952 the project was transferred from the NRC to Atomic Energy of Canada Limited.

Archaeological and Historical Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #66

Location: 529 Richmond Road near Broadview Avenue, Ottawa

MAPLELAWN
This elegant residence and its walled garden are a rare and well-preserved example of a country estate in early 19th-century Canada. Built from 1831-1834 for William Thomson, a prosperous farmer, its centrepiece is this finely crafted home in the British classical tradition. The oval entrance drive and the walled garden of nearly half a hectare reflect the original pattern of the grounds. The sheltered environment for growing household vegetables, tender fruit and flowers recalls the walled gardens common in Britain.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

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