Historical Plaques of
Brant County

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The following 2 plaques were sent in by Shirley Passmore

PLAQUE #1


Location: Tutela Heights Road, 3 km west of Brant County Road 4.

CANADA'S FIRST TELEPHONE BUSINESS OFFICE

1877

In 1877 this house, then located in downtown Brantford, became Canada's first Telephone Business Office. It was the residence of the Reverend Thomas Peter Henderson (1816 - 1887), a former Baptist minister and school inspector in Paris, Ontario, who in 1870 had encouraged the Bell family to come to Brantford. In 1877 he retired from the ministry to become the first General Agent for the telephone business in Canada and played a significant role in its establishment and development. Henderson used this house as his office until 1880, when he joined the newly formed Bell Canada in Montreal as Purchasing Agent and Stores Keeper.

Architectural and Historical Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #2


Location: Tutela Heights Road, 3 km west of Brant County Road 4.

THE BELL HOMESTEAD

Here at his parents' home in July 1874, Alexander Graham Bell conceived the fundamental idea of the telephone and in August 1876, carried out the first successful long-distance trials. The homestead evokes the formative influence of Bell's father, an authority on the acoustics of speech, and of his mother who was deaf. They stimulated their son's lifelong interest in teaching the deaf to speak, a passion that proved crucial to the discovery of the telephone. Since the early 20th century, the Bell Homestead has served as a symbol of this inventor's remarkable achievement.
French translation unavailable at this time

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

The next 5 plaques were sent in by Mary Crandall

PLAQUE #3


Location: At the corner of Talbot & Simcoe St., Scotland, Ontario

DUNCOMBE'S UPRISING

1837

Dr. Charles Duncombe (1791-1867), prominent physician and politician, was leader of the militant reform movement in the London District at the time of the Rebellion of 1837. He rallied the local "Patriots" at the settlement of Scotland, planning to move against Brantford and Hamilton and join forces with William Lyon Mackenzie. On Dec. 13, 1837 word was received of the latter's defeat at Montgomery's Tavern and of Col. Allan MacNab's approach with a strong Loyalist force. Disheartened, Duncombe's followers dispersed during the night and he fled to the United States.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #4


Location: Oakland (Pioneer) Cemetery, Oakland (center of the village)

THE BATTLE OF MALCOLM'S MILLS

1814

In October, 1814, an invading American force of about 700 men under Brigadier-general Duncan McArthur advanced rapidly up the Thames Valley. He intended to devastate the Grand River settlements and the region around the head of Lake Ontario which supplied British forces on the Niagara Frontier. McArthur reached the Grand, and after an unsuccessful attempt to force a crossing, attacked a body of some 150 militia here at Malcolm's Mills (Oakland) on November 6th. Canadian forces, comprising elements of the 1st and 2nd Norfolk, 1st Oxford, and 1st Middlesex regiments, put up a spirited resistance but were overwhelmed.

Erected by the Ontario Archeological and Historic Sites Board

CAIRN #5


Location: Oakland (Pioneer) Cemetery, Oakland

In Memory

of

THE PIONEERS

of

Oakland Township

These headstones are the only authentic record of burial in this cemetery1811-1941


PLAQUE #6


Location: Just off Pinehurst Rd., north of Paris

PARIS PLAINS CHURCH

1845

Built by free labour of its own congregation with stones gathered from nearby fields, the West Dumfries Chapel was completed and dedicated in 1845. It is a fine example of a type of cobblestone construction seldom found elsewhere in Canada, and introduced into this area about 1838 by Levi Broughton, an American builder. The first minister, the Rev. John Law, served from 1845-7, and the church remained active in the Methodist Conference until services were discontinued in 1921. The building was restored in 1948 as a memorial to the pioneers of the community.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic
Sites Board of Ontario

CAIRN #7


Location: Beside Paris Plains Church brass plaque on stone pillar

This cairn

erected in memory of

MAUS SCHOOL

centenary

re-union

1829-1929


The next 2 plaques were sent in by Shirley Passmore

PLAQUE #8


Location: At St. Paul's H.M. Chapel of the Mohawk, Mohawk St., Brantford

MOHAWK VILLAGE
Allies of the British during the American War of independence, the Six Nations Iroquois received extensive lands along the Grand River in 1784. Mohawks, led by Joseph Brant, established a village of some 400 individuals here by 1788. The community was situated at an important crossing point on the river (:Brant's Ford") and prospered as a resting place for travellers on the "Detroit path", a trail linking the Niagara and Detroit Rivers. Increasingly European settlers encroached on Six Nations' lands. In 1841 the government moved the Grand River Iroquois to a section of their land south of the river. Of the Mohawk Village, only the chapel remains.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #9


Location: Mohawk St., Brantford

ST. PAUL'S 1785 H.M. CHAPEL OF THE MOHAWKS
This chapel, the first Protestant church in Ontario, was built by the Crown for the Mohawks of the Six Nations Iroquois who settled here in 1794. It replaced the Queen Anne Chapel (1712) at Fort Hunter, N.Y., which the Mohawk lost, along with their lands, as a result of their alliance with the British during the American War of Independence. The church was dedicated to St. Paul in 1788 by the Reverend John Stuart. In 1904 it was given Royal designation by Edward VII. It is the only Royal Chapel in North America.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

The next plaque was sent in by Janet Kral

The plaque below was composed by Clayton J. Barker on
behalf of the Burford Township Historical Society in 1993

PLAQUE #10


Location: in the old Burford Pioneer Cemetery

THE FOUNDING OF BURFORD
In 1793 Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe granted to Abraham Dayton the entire township of Burford. Dayton was a native of New Milford, Connecticut, U.S.A. The township was to become the "New Jerusalem" for a religious sect with which he was affiliated. Dayton eventually broke his ties with the sect and settled just west of the present village of Burford. He was responsible for bringing several families into the township and by the spring of 1797 the new settlement consisted of twenty-one families. Abraham Dayton died March 1, 1797 after a prolonged illness. Abigail Dayton, Abraham's widow, later married Colonel Joel Stone and moved to Gananoque, where she lived until her death in 1843, at the age of 93. The Dayton's only child Abiah, was the wife of Benajah Mallory and she and her husband followed her parents into this township. Banajah Mallory became a man of considerable influence and by 1805 was elected member of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada representing, Norfolk, Oxford and Middlesex. In June 1812 war was declared against Upper Canada by the United States. During the course of the war Mallory accepted a commission in the U.S. forces and was considered a traitor back home. Benajah Mallory became outlawed and his land was forfeited to the Crown.
This plaque has been erected by the Burford Township Historical Society
&
in permanent commemoration of Burford Township Bicentennial

1793-1993


The next plaque was sent in by Kate McDonald

PLAQUE #11


Location: Salt Springs Community Church, about 5 km
south of Cainsville, near Onondaga

THE GRAND RIVER MISSION
The establishment of this mission in 1822 began Methodist missionary work among the province's Indians, and the following year the Reverend Alvin Terry organized the first congregation at an Indian settlement known as Davisville. Within two years services were also being held here at Salt Springs where in 1828-29 the Indians erected a frame church which soon became the headquarters for the mission. Through the efforts of George and William Ryerson and others, the Salt Springs congregation grew, but after 1834 a rapidly increasing proportion of its membership consisted of white settlers who were replacing the Indians in the area. After the erection of an Indian church south of the Grand, a brick church was completed here in 1860 and was replaced by the present structure in 1902.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Ministry of Colleges and Universities

PLAQUE #12


Location: in front of Nixon family farm, H-Way #5, 2 kms east of St. George

THE HON. HARRY C. NIXON 1891 - 1961
Ontario's thirteenth prime minister was born on this farm and in 1913 graduated from Ontario Agricultural College. A supporter of the United Farmers of Ontario, he was elected to the provincial legislature in 1919 as member for Brant North and served as provincial secretary until the defeat of the Drury administration in 1923. During the Liberal administration of Mitchell F. Hepburn (1934-42), he served as provincial secretary and minister in charge of the department of game and fisheries. Sworn in as prime minister on May 18, 1943, his government was defeated later that year. Nixon retained his seat until his death in 1961, thus ending 42 years of parlimentary service.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #13


Location: Blue Lake Rd., off H-Way 24,, west of St. George

ADELAIDE HUNTER HOODLESS

1857 - 1910

Adelaide Hunter was born in this farm house and lived here until she married John Hoodless in 1881. On February, 19, 1897, she organized at Stoney Creek the world's first Women's Institute. It was her belief that in this organization rural women could discuss their problems and work together to improve their standard of homemaking and citizenship. The movement spread rapidly throughout Ontario and later to the other provinces. Mrs. Hoodless, a natural leader and forceful speaker, introduced the teaching of domestic science into Ontario schools and obtained funds for the building of Macdonald Institute at Guelph.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #14


Location: 52 Grand River St. S., Paris

THE ASA WOLVERTON HOUSE
This house and the adjoining structure were buuilt by Asa Wolverton, a native of Cayuga County, New York, who had immigrated to Upper Canada in 1826. About 1832 he settled in Paris, where he erected sawmills and became a prosperous lumber dealer and contractor. Wolverton acquired this site in 1851 and soon constructed an outstanding residence of stuccoed frame. Designed in a classical manner, the house is distinguished by the entrance portico and the attached storage-wing with its carriage-house. This alignment of structures, often employed in the New England States and the Maritimes, was rarely used in this province and is here adapted to a steeply sloping site. Wolverton resided in the house until his death in 1861.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #15


Location: in front of his former home, 8 Homestead Rd., Paris

KING CAPRON 1796 - 1872
This house was built in 1831 by Hiram Capron, a native of Vermont who, in 1822, had emigrated to Norfolk County where he helped to establish one of Upper Canada's earliest iron foundries. He settled here at the Forks of the Grand in 1829, divided part of his land into town lots, and in 1830 constructed a grist-mill. The following year he renamed the community "Paris". In 1842 with other partners he purchased the nearby qypsum deposits which he built into the village's primary industry. His leadership in founding and developing the town earned him the nickname "King".

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #16


Location: on a cairn at 65 Dundas St. E., Paris

MUNICIPALITY
OF
PARIS
In 1829, Hiram Capron came to the Forks of the Grand and founded the settlement of Paris. In 1850, it was incorporated as a village, with Capron as reeve. In 1856, Paris was incorporated as a town, with H. Finlayson as its first mayor. For the next 142 years, Paris ran its own affairs, with its own mayor, council and control over local services.

PLAQUE #17


Location: on a cairn at 65 Dundas St. E., Paris

DUNDAS STREET
GOVERNOR'S ROAD
Dundas Street, named for Henry Dundas, Secretary of State for the British Home Department, was built on Lieutenant Governor Simcoe's orders in 1793 - 1794. On April 5, 1793, a surveying party under Augustus Jones, Deputy-Surveyor for Upper Canada, surveyed for the road near this site. At the forks of the Grand and Nith Rivers, Jones discoverd qypsum (Plaster of Paris) after which the future Town of Paris would be named. By the fall of 1794, 100 members of the Queen's Rangers under the command of Captain Smith, had cut a road from King's Landing (Dundas) to the east bank of the Grand River. Popularly known as The Governor's Road, it played a major role in the development of Paris.

Cairn erected by the Paris Museum and Historical Society
with financial assistance from the estate of
John Henry Cox.

Cairn unveiled July 1, 1998
by
Jack Bawcutt, Mayor, Town of Paris
Larry McCandless, Chairman, Paris Museum and Historical Society

Lt. Col. M.A. Stevenson, C.D.
(portraying Lt. Gov. Simcoe), Queen's York Rangers


PLAQUE #18


Location: on a cairn at 65 Dundas St. E., Paris

PARIS
COBBLESTONE CAPITAL OF CANADA
This cairn symbolizes the Art of Cobblestone
Masonry which was brought to Paris in 1839 by Levi
Boughton when he erected St. Jame's Church. A
source of pride to Parisians are the eleven houses
and two churches of this unique construction.

Paris Museum and Historical Society
1998 Executive Members


    Larry McCandless, Chairman        Mary Cassar
    Jackie Remus, Vice-Chairman       Betty Sinclair
    Jack Rogers, Secretary-Treasurer  Ken Sinclair
    Fred Bemrose, Curator             Oliver Watts

PRESERVING THE HISTORY OF PARIS

PLAQUE #19


Location: on the grounds of Glenhyrst Gardens & Art Gallery, Brantford

LAWREN HARRIS

1885 - 1970

Born into a prominent Brantford family, Lawren Harris began to paint as a child. At the University of Toronto, a professor noted he sketched during lectures and advised he be sent to Europe to study art. While in Germany (1904-1907), Harris was influenced by urban realism, landscape regionalism, and theosphy, a transcendental, mystical school of thought. In 1920, he helped found the Group of Seven, an association of landscape artists dedicated to creating a distinctly Canadain form of art. Harris saw a spiritual presence in natural forms and painted in an increasingly stylized manner until, in the 1930s, he became an abstract artist. Harris landscapes such as "North Sea, Lake Superior," and "Icebergs, Davis Strait" remain celebrated Canadian images.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #20


Location: on the grounds of the school, St. Paul Ave., Brantford

THE ONTARIO SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND
In 1869, on the recommendation of the Rev. Egerton Ryerson, Superintendent of Education, funds were allocated to establish the first provincial school for blind children. The Ontario Institution for the Education of the Blind, which included the nearby gate-keepers lodge, opended on May 1, 1872, with eleven students. Under its first Principal, Dr. E.S. Wiggins, the residential institution combined elementary school subjects with manual and vocational training, and soon gained recognition for its contribution to the theory and practice of education the blind. By 1881 enrolment had risen to 201. Renamed the Ontario School for the Blind in 1913, it later introduced secondary school courses and in 1974 became The W. Ross Macdonald School in honour of Ontario's Lieutenant-Governor.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #21


Location: First Baptist Church, adjacent to her former home, 70 West St., Brantford

SARA JEANNETTE DIXON 1861 - 1922
An internationally renouned author, Duncan was raised in the adjacent house and educated locally. She taught school briefly, but then determinedly turned to journalism, gaining notice for her distinctive and witty writing style. In 1890 Duncan published her first book, A Social Departure, based in dispatches produced during a trip around the world. Following her marriage the next year, she took up residence in India where she continued to pursue a literary career. A prolific writer, Ducan published over twenty books, only one of which, The Imperialist (1904), had a Canadian setting. In this penetrating study of life in Elgin (Brantford) in the late 19th century. Duncan integrated shrewd political commentary with minute social observation, thereby gaining for herself a distinctive place in Canadian literature.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Communication

PLAQUE #22


Location: 30 Nelson St., Brantford

THE ROYAL CANADIAN COLLEGE OF ORGANISTS
One of Canada's oldest national associations of musicians, the Royal Canadian College of Organists was established in 1909 following an organizational meeting held here in the former Conservatory of Music. Dedicated to elevating the standards and promoting the interests of professional organists, the Canadian Guild of Organists held its first general meeting in 1910. A decade later, when Canadian chapters of the American Guild of Organists were disbandoned the association renamed the Canadian College of Organists absorbed their membership. Local centres were established and membership steadily increased from 245 in 1939 to 1300 in 1959. In recognition of its significant contribution to Canadian cultural life, the college was then granted the designation "Royal". Today it still strives to foster excellence in organ playing and church music.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #23


Location: at the court house, 80 Wellington Sq., Brantford

BRANT COUNTY COURT-HOUSE
In July, 1852, the Six Nations Indians sold to Brant County the land upon which this court-house now stands. Designed by John Turner and William Simon and erected by the Provisional County of Brant, the stone and brick building was largely completed in 1852. The original structure contained court rooms, county offices, a law library and a gaol. Additions were made in 1861 and 1886, but the building remains predominantly Greek Revival in style. The centre block facade has two clusters of simple Doric colums rising from the second floor and supporting a triangular pediment. Identical pediments are repeated over each of the wings. The court-house faces Victoria Square, one of Ontario's most impressive public squares.

Erected by the Archaeological and Historic Sites Board,
Ministry of Colleges and Universities

PLAQUE #24


Location: Victoria Park, Brantford

VICTORIA PARK
Victoria Park was set aside as a square when Lewis Burwell surveyed the original town plan for Brantford in 1830. The square was first landscaped as a formal park in 1861. The plans were prepared by John Turner, a local architect who designed many significant Brantford buildings, including the Brant County court house, Zion United Church and Park Baptist Church, which face the square. In recognition of Upper Canada's link to Britain, Turner's plan was based on the configuration of the Union Jack.

In 1886, the bronze and granite Joseph Brant Memorial was unveiled in the centre of the square. One of the first pieces of statuary of its kind in North America, the memorial to Joseph Brant and the Six Nations Confederacy was sculpted by Percy Wood, winner of the international competition.

In 1892, the granite drinking fountain was located to the west of the memorial at the Market Steet entrance to the park. This fountain was donated by J. K. Osborne, who was a vice-president of A. Harris, Son & Co. and Massey-Harris Co. Ltd., forerunners of Massey-Ferguson Ltd.

Victoria Park was designated under the The Ontario Heritage Act by Brantford City Council on September 22, 1986, as having architectural and historic importance.


PLAQUE #25


Location: 102 Wellington Sq., Brantford

THE FOUNDING OF BRANTFORD
In the 1820's significant improvements to the Hamilton and London road attracted settlers to the Indian lands at Brant's Ford where this thoroughfare crossed the Grand River. A thriving village soon developed and in 1830 the Six Nations surrendered its site. The opening of navigation to Brantford in 1848, the completion of the Buffalo, Brantford and Goderich Railway to the town in 1854 and the development of a rich agricultural hinterland fostered significant commercial and manufacturing growth in Brantford. The firms of Cockshutt and Harris, established here during the 1870's, laid the foundation for Brantford's development as Canada's leading farm implement manufacturing centre. Brantford, which became a town in 1847, was incorporated as a city in 1877.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #26


Location: Brant County Museum, 57 Charlotte St., Brantford

HON. ARTHUR STURGIS HARDY

1837 - 1901

Ontario's fourth prime minister was born in Mount Pleasant, called to the Bar in 1865, and practiced law in Brantford for many years. In 1873 he was elected to the Ontario legislature and sat as Liberal member for South Brant until 1899. Appointed provincial secretary and registrar in 1877, he became commissioner of crown lands in 1889. Following the resignation of Sir Oliver Mowat in 1896, Arthur Hardy assumed the portfolios of prime minister and attorney general. During his regime, an extensive revision and consolidation of the province's statutes was completed. He retired from politics in 1899 and, until his death, held the positions of clerk of process and surrogate clerk at Osgoode Hall.

Archaeological and Historic Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #27


Location: in front of former home, 743 Colborne St. E., Brantford

REV. PETER JONES

1802 - 1856

This house, "Echo Villa", was built by the Reverend Peter Jones (Kahkewaquonaby) who lived here from 1851 until his death. Son of the noted surveyor, Augustus Jones, and Tuhbenahneequay, a Mississauga chief's daughter, Peter was born at Burlington Heights. He was converted to Methodism in 1823 and began to preach in the Grand River area. In 1826 he moved to the Missisauga settlement on the Credit River and was elected a chief of that band in 1829. An eloquent preacher, he converted many Indians throughout Upper Canada, and translated the Gospels and many hymns into the Ojibwa language. Ordained in 1833, he made several successful journeys to England to raise funds for Indian missions.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #28


Location: 184 Mohawk St., Brantford

THE MOHAWK INSTITUTE
The Mohawk Institute was established in 1831 for children of the Six Nations Iroquois living on the Grand River. Pupils from other native communities in Ontario attended the school as well. Like all Canadian residential schools, the Mohawk Institute tried to assimilate its students into the rapidly growing Euro-Canadian society. To that end, it disregarded native cultural traditions and stressed instead Christian teachings, English-language instruction, and manual labour skills. This building was constructed in 1904 after fire destroyed the previous school. When the Institute closed in 1970 the building reverted to the Six Nations of the Grand River. It then became a centre for the renaissance of First Nations cultures

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #29


Location: grounds of his former home "Myrtleville House", now a public museum,
191 Balmoral Dr., Brantford

WILLIAM CHARLES GOOD 1876 - 1976
A leading spokesman for Canadian agrarian and co-operative movements, Good was born and raised on Myrtlevill farm. He early developed a strong sense of social responsibility and, returning here after attending the University of Toronto, he embarked upon a career that effectively combined public service with farming. Good initially focussed his attention on agrarian issues. In 1914 he helped found the United Farmers of Ontairo and the United Farmers Co-Operative Company, organizations he subsequently served, and from 1921-25, following his election on the "Farmers' Platform", he represented Brant in the House of Commons. Then, as president of the Co-operative Union of Canada from 1921-45, Good devoted himself to promoting co-operative ideals as a means of reducing social injustice. He championed this cause until his death.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Citizenship and Culture

PLAQUE #30


Location: Birthplace - "Chiefswood", now a museum operated by the
Six Nations Band Council on the Grand River Reserve, H-Way 54, Ononadaga

E. PAULINE JOHNSON

1861 - 1913

In this house "Chiefswood", erected about 1853, was born the Mohawk poetess Emily Pauline Johnson (Tekahionwake). Her father, Chief G.H.M. Johnson a greatly respected leader of the Six Nations, built "Chiefswood" as a wedding gift for her English mother, a cousin of the well-known American novelist William Dean Howells. By her writing and dramatic recitals from her own works in Great Britain and throughout North America, Pauline made herself the voice of the Indian race in the English-tongue. No book of poetry by a Canadian has outsold her collected verse, "Flint and Feather".

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #31


Location: Council House Park, Oshweken

AHYOUWAEGHS - JOHN BRANT

1794 - 1832

John Brant was born at the Mohawk Village (Brantford), the youngest son of the renouned Joseph Brant. He was educated at Ancaster and Niagara, and fought with distinction during the War of 1812. Brant devoted his life to improving the welfare of his people. He initiated the establishment of schools and from 1828 served as superintendent of the Six Nations the first native person appointed to that post. Around 1830 his mother Catharine (Ohtowa? Kéhson), clan mother of the Turtle Clan Mohawks, chose Brant to succeed Henry Tekarihogen as sachem of the Turtle Clan Mohawks, a position of great influence within the Six Nations Confederacy. Brant died of cholera in 1832.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #32


Location: Council House Park, Oshweken

COGWAGEE - TOM LONGBOAT

1886 - 1949

An Onondaga from the Six Nations of the Grand River, Tom Longboat was one of the world's great long-distance runners. He ran his first race in Caledonia in 1905 and two years later shot to international attention with a record-breaking win in the Boston Marathon. He represented Canada in the 1908 Olympics. Hailed as professional world champion the following year, Longboat went on to set world records for 15- and 20-mile races. During the First World War he served as a despatch runner with the Canadian Expeditionary Forces (1916-1919). Tom Longboat is a member of the Canadian Sports Hall of Fame.

Ontario Heritage Foundation,
an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #33


Location: at the New Credit Council House, Oneida Township,
First Line Road, New Credit

NEW CREDIT INDIAN RESERVE AND MISSION
Faced with the pressure of white settlement, the Mississauga Indians began considering in 1840 the relocation of their Credit River Village near Toronto. In 1847 the Six Nations Council made them an unsolicited offer of land on its Grand River reserve. Native spokesmen for resettlement, including the Reverend Peter Jones, a Mississauga Chief, selected land in Tuscarora and later in Oneida township. Although several had located elsewhere, some 266 Mississauga settled on lots of the New Credit Reserve in 1847. Many of these belonged to the Methodist Church and in 1848 a mission was established here by the Reverend William Ryerson. With the mission's growth and the increase in cultivated acreage, New Credit became a prosperous farming community and in 1903 the Mississauga purchased the Reserve.

Erected by the Ontario Heritage Foundation,
Ministry of Culture and Recreation

PLAQUE #34


Location: on the grounds of the Public School, Mt. Pleasant Rd., Mt. Pleasant

DR. AUGUSTA STOWE GULLEN

1857 - 1943

Canada's first woman graduate in medicine was born in Mount Pleasant. She attended the Toronto School of Medicine, received her degree from Victoria University in 1883, and was licensed to practise. Her mother, Dr. Emily Howard Stowe, had graduated in New York State in 1868, and after a prolonged struggle for recognition had been licenced to practise medicine in 1880, thus becoming Canada's first woman doctor. Both were ardent feminists, and devoted themselves to the advancement of women in education and public life. Dr. Emily Stowe organized the Canadian movement for female suffrage, and under her daughter's leadership women in Ontario received the franchise in 1917.

Erected by the Ontario Archaeological and Historic Sites Board

PLAQUE #35

Location: On the north side of Blue Lake Road (Road 35) west of Highway 24, street number 359

ADELAIDE HUNTER HOODLESS
1857-1910
Born in Ontario, Adelaide Hoodless sought to release the full potential of women for social action. An outspoken educator and social reformer, she successfully pressed for acceptance of Domestic Economy as a subject for study in Canadian schools, and was largely responsible for founding the Institutes of Household Science at Guelph, Ste. Anne de Bellevue and Toronto. Active in forming the Young Women's Christian Association, the National Council of Women, and the Federated Women's Institute, she also aided in establishing the Victorian Order of Nurses. She died in Toronto.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #36

Location: At Chiefswood National Historic Site at Road 54 and Pauline Johnson Road

CHIEFSWOOD
Completed in 1856, Chiefswood owes its importance to its architecture and the prominence of the people who lived here. Derived from the popular Italianate style of the Picturesque movement, the grandeur of the house reflects the status of its builder and owner, Chief George H.M. Johnson, a Mohawk chief of Six Nations and an intermediary with non-Aboriginal society. His daughter, the celebrated poet Pauline Johnson, drew inspiration from the years she spent in this house.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #37

Location: At Chiefswood National Historic Site at Road 54 and Pauline Johnson Road

E. PAULINE JOHNSON
TEKAHIONWAKEH
1861-1913
Born here at Chiefswood, the daughter of a Mohawk chief, E. Pauline Johnson gained international fame for her romantic writings on Indian themes, but she also wrote about nature, religion and Canadian nationalism. Beginning in the 1890s, she published numerous poems, essays and short stories and recited them in theatrical fashion on public stages throughout Canada and abroad. Reaching a wide audience, she succeeded in making the public more aware of the colourful history and cultural diversity of Canadian Indians. Her ashes were buried in Stanley Park, Vancouver.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #38

Location: On the south side of Colborne Street East 1 km west of Road 18

HON. GEORGE BROWN 1818-1880
Across the Grand River at this point lies Bow Park, once the farm of George Brown, a leading architect of Confederation, who built up an estate of some 324 acres beginning in 1866. A Scottish immigrant, Brown founded the Toronto Globe in 1844, the influential Reform journal which helped him become a powerful political figure. As leader of the "Clear Grit" Liberals and champion of Canada West, Brown entered the "Great Coalition" government of 1864 with his arch-adversary, John A. Macdonald to make Confederation possible. Until his death in 1880, Brown spent much time at "Bow Park" developing it as a major enterprise for raising pure-bred cattle, a notable pioneering agriculture venture in Ontario.

Architectural and Historical Sites Board of Ontario

PLAQUE #39

Location: In front of the New Credit Council House on the north side of 1st Line Road
street number 2789 near Onondaga Road

REVEREND PETER JONES
(1802-1856)
A Mississauga Chief and Methodist minister, the Reverend Peter Jones helped his people survive the impact of European settlement which had brought them close to extinction. As his Band's fishing and hunting territories disappeared, he converted his people to Christianity and induced them to adapt to European ways. A strong advocate of education, Jones was the first to make Ojibwa a written language. In 1826 he encouraged his Band to settle at the Credit River and take up farming. When settler encroachment forced the Band to leave the thriving village it had built, it moved here in 1847.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #40

Location: At the Syl Apps Community Centre at the southwest corner
of William and Elm streets, Paris

SYL APPS (1915-1998)
Born in Paris, Ontario in 1915, Charles Joseph Sylvanus "Syl" Apps was a professional hockey player, businessman and politician. Throughout his life, Apps displayed remarkable breadth in his abilities and accomplishments. He was a varsity football star and as a pole vaulter won two national championships and competed at the 1936 Berlin Olympics. During an extraordinary 10-season hockey career with the Toronto Maple Leafs, Apps was renowned for his skill and impeccable sportsmanship. He was the Leafs' captain for six seasons and led them to three Stanley Cups. During the Second World War, Apps left the team for two years to serve in the Canadian Army. After retiring from hockey in 1948, he pursued a successful career in business and was elected member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario for Kingston in 1963 - a seat he held until his retirement in 1974. Apps believed in hard work, respect for others, loyalty, family and faith - and he upheld these values throughout his life.

Ontario Heritage Trust, an agency of the Government of Ontario

PLAQUE #41

Location: In Six Nations Veterans' Park at the northwest corner of Chiefswood Road and 4th Line

THAYENDANEGA (JOSEPH BRANT)
1742-1807
This celebrated Mohawk chief of Canajoharie Castle and Johnson Hall grew up in the Mohawk Valley. He received his baptism of fire at the battle of Lake George in 1755. He served with Sir William Johnson in the Niagara expedition of 1759 and fought in Pontiac's uprising of 1763. He and his Mohawks actively supported the British during the American Revolution. His vision of a new social and economic order to protect the Indian way of life vanished at the Sandusky Council after the war. He then led his people to Upper Canada where they settled on the Grand River. He died at Wellington Square, now Burlington, Ontario.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

PLAQUE #42

Location: In Ohsweken, beside the front door of Gaylord Powless Arena at
1738 Fourth Line Road, south side of the street west of Chiefswood Road

TOM LONGBOAT
1886-1949
This Onondaga athlete, born on the Six Nations reserve of the Grand River Iroquois, became the foremost long distance runner of his time. He followed the ancient Iroquois tradition of running, winning many races in Canada and abroad, including the Boston Marathon of 1907. He also participated in the Olympics of 1908. Competing when professional foot races were a popular attraction, he was one of the first Canadian athletes to make a living solely from sports. Retiring from competitive racing before the First World War, he later served as a despatch carrier in that conflict. He died on this reserve.

Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada
Commission des lieux et monuments historiques du Canada

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